We all hear things like: "There are a lot of harmful emissions from fossil-fuel generators like coal", and perhaps there is mention of "CO2" and "climate-change" or even "global warming", and we assume its all the one thing - well, its not.
Coal is called "dirty coal" for very good reasons - namely, health reasons.
The American Economic Review published a paper quantizing the pollution/health effects of burning coal - this is called Gross External Damages (GED).
The paper is titled "Environmental Accounting for Pollution in the United States Economy" - Click for PDF
As the paper states:
"This paper uses the Air Pollution Emission Experiments and Policy (APEEP) analysis model, which is an integrated assessment economic model of air pollution for the United States (Muller and Mendelsohn 2007). The APEEP model connects emissions of six major pollutants (sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and coarse particulate matter (PM10-PM2.5)) to the physical and economic consequences of these discharges on society. The effects included in the model calculations are adverse consequences for human health, decreased timber and agriculture yields, reduced visibility, accelerated depreciation of materials, and reductions in recreation services."
Of note is that the paper also includes GED results for the power generation industry, both with and without effects of CO2. This is notable because critics doubting the effects of CO2, will now have to explain away these other damages!
We can make an approximation of the GED data for Australia, using the ratio to the US data, for the data that is readily available. This will give at least a meaningful indication, even if it is widely approximate.
In 2010, the US electricity consumption was 3886TWh from all sources, with 1765TWh from coal. For 2008, the equivalent Australian consumption was 224TWh, with 121TWh from coal. This gives our coal usage ratio of 0.0686 to the US, ie our consumption from coal is about 6.86% of the US.
From page '1665' of the paper (although it is only 28 pages in total), we see that the Gross External Damages due to coal-fired generation is $US53.4 billion per year - this equates to $AUD3.94billion per year.
Adding the fuel-tax subsidies ($2bn/year) and other transport tax concessions (also $2bn/year) given to the energy generation industry in Australia, we start to get overall subsidies/damages costs of running coal-fired generation in Australia of around $8billion per year. And thats without adding any damage costs due to CO2 - coal-fired generation is both hazardous to ourselves, and expensive - compared to renewable generation.